- The majority of students in the public school system (59.6%) experienced
some form of suspension or expulsion in middle or high school.
- African-American students were more likely than students of other races
to be disciplined during their seventh- to twelfth-grade school years.
- Nearly three out of four students who qualified for special education
services during the study period were suspended or expelled at least
once between their seventh- and twelfth-grade school years. The level of
disciplinary involvement by these students, however, varied significantly
according to the specific type of educational disability they had.85
- Students who experienced suspension or expulsion, especially those who
did so repeatedly, were more likely to be held back a grade or drop out of
school than students who were not involved in the disciplinary system.
- More than one in seven students were in contact with the juvenile
justice system between seventh and twelfth grade. Students who were
suspended or expelled had a greater likelihood of contact with the
juvenile justice system in their middle or high school years, particularly
when they were disciplined multiple times.
- Schools that had similar student populations and were alike in other
important regards varied signficantly in how often they suspended or
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